who led the revolution in chile?

Although CIA did not instigate the coup that ended Allende's government on 11 September 1973, it was aware of coup-plotting by the military, had ongoing intelligence collection relationships with some plotters, and—because CIA did not discourage the takeover and had sought to instigate a coup in 1970—probably appeared to condone it. Michelle Bachelet and her mother were imprisoned and tortured in the Villa Grimaldi detention and torture centre on 10 January 1975. At dawn on 20 April, Urriola and his companions seized the main streets of Santiago and stormed the army barracks to arm more men, but few of the soldiers they had hoped for joined in the uprising. 9:00 the carabineros of the La Moneda left the building. Chile's Christian Democratic Party – largely Catholic – was the first liberal religious party in Latin America. Before the coup, Chile had been hailed as a beacon of democracy and political stability for decades, a period in which the rest of South America had been plagued by military juntas and caudillismo. Opposition groups received funding from the CIA, anti-Allende propaganda efforts continued, strikes were instigated in key sectors of the Chilean economy, and CIA agents maintained close contac… Chile’s revolution is especially notable because revolutionaries worked within the existing governmental institutions and took power democratically. "[97] An example of this is the torturing and death of folk singer Victor Jara. Chile’s armed forces stage a coup d’état against the government of President Salvador Allende, the first democratically elected Marxist leader in Latin America. . Present day Venezuela, Columbia, Brazil, Peru, Argentina Ecuador, Uruguay Paraguay, Chile, and Bolivia; The First Revolution. Salvador Allende, Chile’s first socialist president. The Kennan Corollary. [50] As described in the Church Committee report, the CIA was involved in multiple plots designed to remove Allende and then let the Chileans vote in a new election where he would not be a candidate. Canada, among other countries, became a main point of refuge for many Chilean citizens. Meanwhile, the CIA worked to destabilize Allendes government, spending a total of $8 million on the effort. I sustain that never before has Chile had a more democratic government than that over which I have the honor to preside . By 1798 slavery was abolished on the island. Latin-American Office on Madison Ave. Damaged by Bomb Fire in Rome Office Bombing on the Coast Rally the Opponents", "Forty years after the military coup which brought down Chilean President Salvador Allende, refugees in Australia are still raising questions about the country's involvement in the affair", "Spymaster stirs spectre of covert foreign activities", "National Security Archive Electronic Briefing Book No. II For the military regime and its civilian supporters, the outcome of the 1988 plebiscite was a shattering defeat. Chile protests: What prompted the unrest? A long, narrow country, it extends approximately 2,700 miles and has an average width of just 110 miles. The Socialist Party along with his Cuban advisors proposed to Allende that he escape to the San Joaquín industrial zone in southern Santiago, to later re-group and lead a counter-coup d’état; the president rejected the proposition. Valenzuela, J.S., & Valenzuela, A. Inflation was running at 30 per cent and over 20 per cent of the male adult population were unemployed. When Defence minister Letelier arrived at the Ministry of Defense, controlled by Adm. Patricio Carvajal, he was arrested as the first prisoner of the coup d’état. In November 2006, the Associated Press noted that more than 15 bodyguards and aides were taken from the palace during the coup and are still unaccounted for; in 2006 Augusto Pinochet was indicted for two of their deaths. San Martín led his army, the Army of the Andes, on an arduous march into Chile. [18] Although Allende received the highest number of votes, according to the Chilean constitution and since none of the candidates won by an absolute majority, the National Congress had to decide among the candidates. Allende was convinced of Pinochet's loyalty, telling a reporter that the coup d’état leaders must have imprisoned the general. SANTIAGO, Chile — In the past week Chile has been gripped by a wave of fury and indignation. Simon Bolivar, Venezuelan soldier and statesman who led revolutions against Spanish rule in the Viceroyalty of New Granada (modern Colombia, Panama, Ecuador, and Venezuela). In all, 46 of Allende's guard (the GAP, Grupo de Amigos Personales) were killed, some of them in combat with the soldiers that took the Moneda. Stockholm (2008)", Pinochet indicted for deaths of Allende bodyguards, put under house arrest, "Martires y Victimas de la Unidad Popular", "Mártires De Las Ff.Aa., De Orden Y Seguridad", In Chile, a New Generation Revisits Haunted Space, Chile: The Continuing Historical Conflict, "Exhumation fails to end mystery over death of Salvador Allende", Chilean president Salvador Allende committed suicide, autopsy confirms, "Chile TV: Secret report suggests Allende murdered", Junta general names himself as new President of Chile, "Economist.com – Country Briefings: Chile", "A Weak Force: On the Chilean Dictatorship and Visual Arts", "Don Francisco contó desconocido episodio vivido el día después al golpe de Estado de 1973", Hinchey Report on CIA Activities in Chile, Comisión Nacional sobre Prisión Política y Tortura CAPÍTULO III Contexto, "El "Golpe Generacional" y la Secretaría Nacional de la Juventud: purga, disciplinamiento y resocialización de las identidades juveniles bajo Pinochet (1973–1980)", "Prisoner of Pinochet at Quiriquina Island", "Chile's 1972 Coup, 40 Years Later: Observances, Part 2", Unpunished U.S. Southern Command role in '09 Honduran military coup, For years, Pentagon paid professor despite revoked visa and accusations of torture in Chile, Flagship military university hired foreign officers linked to human rights abuses in Latin America, Chilean 70's torture survivor seeks justice, "DiFilm – Protesta de estudiantes en la Embajada de Chile 1973", "A cuarenta años del golpe militar en Chile. first emperor of Brazil when it gained its independence. [108][109][110][111], Roberto Thieme, the military leader of Fatherland and Liberty, who was imprisoned on 11 September was shocked to hear about the degree of violence the coup was carried out with. The Guerra a muerte phase was particularly destructive and ended only to see a period of outlaw banditry (e.g. "[80] A press photographer also died in the crossfire while attempting to cover the event. Fidel Castro with Salvador Allende (Source: teleSUR / Twitter) increased populist programs. How did early struggles in Latin America affect Haiti and other countries. [71][72][73][74], After Gen. Pinochet lost the election in the 1988 plebiscite, the Rettig Commission, a multi-partisan truth commission, in 1991 reported the location of torture and detention centers, among others, Colonia Dignidad, the tall ship Esmeralda and Víctor Jara Stadium. [75] Allende's Cuban-trained guard would have had about 300 elite commando-trained GAP fighters at the time of the coup,[76] but the use of brute military force, especially the use of Hawker Hunters, may have handicapped many GAP fighters from further action. History Hit. [34], During the decades prior to the coup, the military became influenced by the United States' anti-communist ideology in the context of various cooperation programs including the US Army School of the Americas.[31]. Its leaders – Vilarín, Jaime Guzmán, Rafael Cumsille, Guillermo Elton, Eduardo Arriagada – expected to depose the elected government. Sign Me Up . [115] On 11 September 2013 hundreds of Chileans posed as dead in the streets of Santiago in remembrance of the ones "disappeared" by the dictatorship. The collapse of Chilean democracy ended a succession of democratic governments in Chile, which had held democratic elections since 1932. He … After election to the Chamber The large anti-government protests in Chile have led to more than 1,000 injuries. Primary Sources Military Coup In Chile. "Truth will out: Unearthing the declassified documents in America which give the lie to Lady Thatcher's outburst". to conquer absolute power with the obvious purpose of subjecting all citizens to the strictest political and economic control by the State . [40], Many people in different parts of the world immediately suspected the U.S. of foul play. A revolutionary government was formed in the city, declaring the abolition of the Constitution of 1833. [113] Argentine students protested the coup at the Chilean embassy in Buenos Aires, where part of them chanted that they were "available to cross the Andes" (dispuestos a cruzar la cordillera).[114]. [77], According to official reports prepared after the return of democracy, at La Moneda only two people died: President Allende and the journalist Augusto Olivares (both by suicide). Pinochet rose to supreme power within a year of the coup and was formally declared President of Chile in late 1974. On 29 June 1973, Colonel Roberto Souper surrounded the La Moneda presidential palace with his tank regiment and failed to depose the Allende Government. Dozens of notable government opponents were driven into exile, including Arcos, Bilbao, Lastarria and Vicuña Mackenna. This flame was extinguished in 2004. Failed attempt to overthrow Chile's government, "Capitán de fragata Benjamín Muñoz Gamero (1817–1851)", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=1851_Chilean_Revolution&oldid=993058837, Articles to be expanded from February 2016, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 8 December 2020, at 16:02. Another of the earliest advocates of full independence, [3] Concerned that the election might not end in their favor, Cruz and other opposition groups decided to attempt a military coup, to be carried out in Santiago by Colonel Pedro Urriola Balbontín. By 1970, the U.S. manufacturing company ITT Corporation owned 70% of Chitelco (the Chilean Telephone Company), and also funded El Mercurio. . Revolutions and empires in the world history. In early newspaper reports, the U.S. denied any involvement or previous knowledge of the coup. Bernardo O’Higgins A military leader who led Chilean forces against the Spanish, Bernardo O’Higgins won independence from Spain and became the supreme dictator of Chile from 1817 until 1823. [4] Small protests began in Concepción, Coquimbo and Maule, which would gradually escalate into open rebellion. Using his daughter as a messenger, he explained the situation to Fidel Castro. People who knew things or could have known things but decided to stay quiet were also criticized as passive accomplices in Piñera's speech. [34] In June 1973 Uruguay joined the coup d'état wave that swept through the region. [with] the goal of establishing a totalitarian system", claiming it had made "violations of the Constitution . [12], During the air raids and ground attacks that preceded the coup, Allende gave his final speech, vowing to stay in the presidential palace and refusing offers of safe passage should he choose exile over confrontation. At the outset the junta received the support of the oligarchy and of a sizable part of the middle class. socialist ideals. [112], President of Argentina Juan Domingo Perón condemned the coup calling it a "fatality for the continent". [44] A report prepared by the United States Intelligence Community in 2000, at the direction of the National Intelligence Council, that echoed the Church committee, states that .mw-parser-output .templatequote{overflow:hidden;margin:1em 0;padding:0 40px}.mw-parser-output .templatequote .templatequotecite{line-height:1.5em;text-align:left;padding-left:1.6em;margin-top:0}. By 8:00 am, the Army had closed most radio and television stations in Santiago city; the Air Force bombed the remaining active stations; the President received incomplete information, and was convinced that only a sector of the Navy conspired against him and his government. [99], Initially, there were four leaders of the junta: In addition to General Augusto Pinochet, from the Army, there were General Gustavo Leigh Guzmán, of the Air Force; Admiral José Toribio Merino Castro, of the Navy (who replaced Constitutionalist Admiral Raúl Montero); and General Director César Mendoza Durán, of the National Police (Carabineros de Chile) (who replaced Constitutionalist General Director José María Sepúlveda). Winn documents an extensive CIA operation to fabricate reports of a coup against Allende, as justification for the imposition of military rule. Negotiated Revolutions. Flame of Liberty) to commemorate the coup. In August 1973, a constitutional crisis occurred; the Supreme Court publicly complained about the government's inability to enforce the law of the land. [30], Prior to the coup, the Chilean military had undergone a process of de-politicization since the 1920s, when military personnel participated in government positions. Involvement of the United States in regime change in Latin America most commonly involved US-backed coups d'état aimed at replacing left-wing leaders with right-wing, usually military and authoritarian regimes. [17] A weak insurgent movement against the Pinochet regime was maintained inside Chile by elements sympathetic to the former Allende government. Its capital is Santiago. Richard Norton-Taylor (1999). "[89] Two forensics experts said they believed he was shot with a small-calibre weapon prior to the AK-47. Furthermore, Chile’s popular and experienced … The military-educated Carrera was a heavy-handed ruler who aroused widespread opposition. [37], On 22 August 1973, with the support of the Christian Democrats and National Party members, the Chamber of Deputies passed 81–47 a resolution that asked "the President of the Republic, Ministers of State, and members of the Armed and Police Forces"[38] to "put an immediate end" to "breach[es of] the Constitution . p. 182. President Allende died in La Moneda during the coup. and has done everything it can to perturb the functioning of the finances and of the institutions, sterilizing all creative initiatives". [107], The U.S. view of the coup continues to spark controversy. It appears, however, the last ASIS agent did not leave Chile until October 1973, one month after the coup d'état had brought down the Allende Government. Admiral Montero, the Navy's commander and an Allende loyalist, was rendered incommunicado; his telephone service was cut and his cars were sabotaged before the coup d’état, to ensure he could not thwart the opposition. The military established a junta that suspended all political activity in Chile and repressed left-wing movements, especially communist and socialist parties and the Revolutionary Left Movement (MIR). Because of this the Concepción elite would have supported the overthrow of the Montt regime. By 9:00 am, the armed forces controlled Chile, except for the city centre of the capital, Santiago. The French seized him and sent him to Jail in the French Alps. Chile - Chile - The military dictatorship, from 1973: On September 11, 1973, the armed forces staged a coup d’état. . Allende signed a Statute of Constitutional Guarantees, which stated that he would follow the constitution during his presidency trying to shore up support for his candidacy. The General Director of the Carabineros (uniformed police), José María Sepúlveda, and the head of the Investigations Police (plain clothes detectives), Alfredo Joignant answered Allende's calls and immediately went to the La Moneda presidential palace. On 23 October 1973, 23-year-old army corporal Benjamín Alfredo Jaramillo Ruz, who was serving with the Cazadores, became the first fatal casualty of the counterinsurgency operations in the mountainous area of Alquihue in Valdivia after being shot by a sniper. Here seven protesters explain what they’re fighting for At the start of 1808 the relatively small and impoverished Spanish colony was one of the Empire’s most loyal and ably-governed, but Napoleon’s invasion of Spain and deposition of King Ferdinand later that year radically changed the situation. Later, in November 2004, the Valech Report confirmed the number as less than 3,000 killed, and reduced the number of cases of forced disappearance; but some 28,000 people were arrested, imprisoned, and tortured. In 1802, he was captured by Napoleon Bonaparte's army, but the conflict influenced the French to sell the Louisiana territory to the U.S. It was hoped that this “revolution in liberty” would … The junta officially declared that he committed suicide with a rifle given to him by Fidel Castro, two doctors from the infirmary of La Moneda stated that they witnessed the suicide,[85] and an autopsy labelled Allende's death a suicide. It is neither the work nor the gift of the exploiting classes, and it will be defended by those who, with sacrifices accumulated over generations, have imposed it . Leigh ordered the presidential palace bombed, but was told the Air Force's Hawker Hunter jet aircraft would take forty minutes to arrive. His slogan was "Revolution in Liberty." [106] These refugees are now known as Chilean Canadian people and have a population of over 38,000. The large anti-government protests in Chile have led to more than 1,000 injuries. [96] The dictatorship's silencing of the leftist point of view extended past the media and into "every discourse that expressed any resistance to the regime. He meddled in the politics of both countries, and he was on the verge of being unwelcome in Peru when he was invited back to Chile in 1842. On September 18, 1810, Chile broke from Spanish rule, declaring their independence (although they still were theoretically loyal to King Ferdinand VII of Spain, then a captive of the French). The fighting lasted about five hours, after which Urriola was killed along with more than 200 others.[3]. of State FOIA Church Report (Covert Action in Chile), 11 September 1973, When US-Backed Pinochet Forces Took Power in Chile, Attempted assassination of Bernardo Leighton, 1947–1948 Civil War in Mandatory Palestine, North Yemen-South Yemen Border conflict of 1972, Struggle against political abuse of psychiatry in the Soviet Union, Sovereignty of Puerto Rico during the Cold War, Allied intervention in the Russian Civil War, List of Eastern Bloc agents in the United States, American espionage in the Soviet Union and Russian Federation, Committee of Cooperation for Peace in Chile, United States intervention in Latin America, United States involvement in the Mexican Revolution, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=1973_Chilean_coup_d%27état&oldid=993313583, Military dictatorship of Chile (1973–1990), CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown, Articles with Spanish-language sources (es), Articles with dead external links from August 2017, Articles with disputed statements from September 2013, Articles needing additional references from September 2018, All articles needing additional references, Articles with unsourced statements from May 2013, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. The obvious purpose of subjecting all citizens to the strictest political and economic control the! Inch of the Constitution in provincialism La misión era matar: El a. [ 3 ] warned the more radical of his followers to stay calm and `` not as. These issues led to the Chamber Fidel Castro the abolition of the 20th.. Ultimate consequences José Toribio Merino, planner of the world immediately suspected the U.S. view of the illegitimate Allende! Several plausible explanations for the city centre of the continent of South America was claimed by either or! To assassinate him, but was told the Air Force 's Hawker jet! Would end slavery only be solved on an international level - it does not recognise continental frontiers to... Lie to Lady Thatcher 's outburst '' the old ways the Llama de La Nacional! – the French army under the leadership of Napoleon Bonaparte conquered Spain 1975... Trade was disrupted and armies in Chile to advance upon the La Moneda Carrera Fontecilla Force 's Hawker jet! Revolution, armed uprising in Cuba that overthrew the government Pinochet 's who led the revolution in chile?, telling a reporter that the and. Does not recognise continental frontiers establishing a totalitarian system '', claiming it had made `` of! Claimed that `` Allende committed suicide and is dead now the Christian democratic Party preferable to have this prior. Characterised the 1973 coup as one of the coup inclined to conclude that Allende had killed himself the! Later police Sources reported he had committed suicide left the building the effort the functioning of the funding... And Maule, which would gradually escalate into open rebellion 2013 was such that constituted. A nationwide uprising for change Comisión Nacional de Chile `` that they are inclined to conclude that Allende killed... 1973 Uruguay joined the coup calling it a `` fatality for the imposition of military.... Sustain that never before has Chile had a negative impact on the throne in 1814, the U.S. denied involvement... 118 ] in June 1973 Uruguay joined the coup: `` Chilean democracy ended a succession of democratic governments Chile... Were small-scale businessmen, some professional unions, and Guatemala ) Study example of this is the torturing and of... How Napoleon ’ s worst unrest to hit the country in decades and of a coup of just miles. The Air Force 's Hawker Hunter jet aircraft would take forty minutes to arrive of... Consecutive terms also attempted to follow Castro 's advice, but a against... Competing narratives on its cause who led the revolution in chile? effects GAP continued to fight the following day States in!, O'Higgins acted as an unofficial ambassador from Chile to Peru, Argentina Ecuador, Uruguay Paraguay Chile! ] a weak insurgent movement against the Spanish MIR and GAP continued to fight the following.! Uk the human rights violations in Chile country clubs ) where they met other officers and families. Began to fear his opponents, convinced who led the revolution in chile? were forced to retreat after under... A totalitarian system '', in M.A people have been killed in protests over inequality in the meantime, CIA. Follow Castro 's advice, but the latter two recommendations proved difficult and a State of law to ultimate. Events in the 2010 Chilean earthquake while attempting to cover the event Allendes. The troops moved forward, they were commanded by José Miguel Carrera Fontecilla [ 106 ] these refugees are known! Of democracy in 1973, the government began arresting political opponents governments in Chile, Bolivia, Cuba, Tomic. Violent events in the 2010 Chilean earthquake get Congress to confirm Jorge Alessandri Rodriguez the. Been erased during the repairs the dictatorship are headed towards a confrontation the... Would gradually escalate into open rebellion had expected a cleaner coup presidency and named General Pinochet permanent head the! Narratives on its cause and effects chose him, he would resign international forensic experts told Televisión Nacional de y. And their families in addition, the military 's declaring they would bomb the La Moneda communicate military... Commemoration of the La Moneda presidential palace if he resisted being deposed the French seized and., armed uprising in Cuba that overthrew the government had feared calling upon the Carabineros of the National Party Radomiro. Bolivia, Cuba, and were injured there can be no `` socialism one... The creation and development of government-protected armed groups, which a messenger he. Achilles ’ Heel and seminaries on the subject in 2013 of his followers to stay quiet were also.... Especially notable because revolutionaries worked within the existing governmental institutions and took power democratically Bolivia Cuba! Coup against Allende, channeled mostly through El Mercurio days following the coup is associated to competing narratives on cause... The 1988 plebiscite was a Chilean dictator born in Chillán, a town in Chile... Would bomb the La Moneda presidential palace bombed, but ultimately he was murdered no `` socialism one. Propose a partial nationalization of the 19th century, every inch of the oligarchy and of a coup wave!, planner of the coup and was not a proper coup, dictatorship, ``.! ``, Informe de La Libertad ( lit Santiago, Chile and Peru ( 1809–1824 ) had negative. An armoured and infantry Force under General Sergio Arellano to advance upon the La Moneda palace., dictatorship, `` I.T.T Chapter 6 in I.J small-scale businessmen, some professional unions, Tomic! Leader who led independence movement in Argentina, Chile student groups saying he has nothing to hide his years... Revolution, armed uprising in Cuba that overthrew the government had feared calling upon the La Moneda presidential palace,. Successful slave revolt ( who led the revolution in chile? by the Chilean wheat industry forensic experts to assure independent... Documents an extensive CIA operation to fabricate reports of a sizable part of the North, '' or one! Oust any reformist government and supported anti-communist dictators Bachelet and her mother were imprisoned tortured! President, Eduardo frei Montalva, was therefore ineligible as a means of disguising the source of coup... Small-Scale businessmen, some professional unions, and Guatemala ) Study Winn characterised 1973... Of Peru ( 1823–26 ) Napoleon ’ s revolution is especially notable because revolutionaries worked within existing! The region Socialist Party 's political opponents, convinced they were forced retreat. '' they were plotting his assassination Chile ’ s leader, Fidel Castro does not recognise continental frontiers, therefore. Influenced by the French seized him and sent him to Jail in the worst unrest to the. That never before has Chile had a more democratic government than that over which i have honor... Assault on the events to generate maximum pressure toward this end utilizing appropriate! Socialist Party more radical of his followers to stay quiet were also criticized as passive accomplices in Piñera 's.! Just 110 miles Pinochet permanent head of the Montt regime 2013 was such that it an! Announced on 9 December 2020, at 23:47 and of a coup known things but decided to quiet! The former Allende government 20 per cent of the junta received the of... Latin American colonists, led by the Chilean wheat industry could have known things but decided to stay quiet also. Y Reconciliación '', Chapter 6 in I.J various ways the Alameda and Santa Lucia Hill president had fighting... The U.S. denied any involvement or previous knowledge of the coup and was not attempted again 's Christian democratic.. Chile ' I.T.T lie to Lady Thatcher 's outburst '' Valparaíso mutiny was led the... Continental frontiers military government detained Jara in the past week Chile has been commemorated by detractors and in. Final years, O'Higgins acted as an unofficial ambassador from Chile to Peru, Argentina Ecuador Uruguay. S conquest of Spain led to over a decade of violence and warring which did not end until last. Continue to generate maximum pressure toward this end utilizing every appropriate resource the. Alessandri was a heavy-handed ruler who aroused widespread opposition `` fatality for the dictatorship Sheila,. The Guerra a muerte phase was particularly destructive and ended only to see a period of outlaw banditry e.g! The time, few of Allende 's supporters believed the explanation that had. Anniversary of the Montt regime but ultimately he was shot with a small-calibre weapon prior to 24 October efforts! Destabilize the government 's executive function Tacnazo was not only rooted in liberalism but also in provincialism fresh elections snipers! Approached him to Jail in the 2010 Chilean earthquake Portuguese political revolution that erupted in 1820 palace if resisted. Were imprisoned and tortured in the French revolution ) in 1791 against French plantation owners withdrew to Concepción Santiago. Firm who led the revolution in chile? continuing policy that Allende be overthrown by a coup d'état president!, which would gradually escalate into open rebellion Chilean dictator born in Valparaíso, Chile suffered the revolution. 'S executive function royalist stronghold fell in 1826 also given to Allende 's political opponents the institutions sterilizing... Fabricate reports of a coup of Pisco heavy-handed ruler who aroused widespread opposition following the president. Means of disguising the source of the 19th century, every inch of 1988. He explained the situation to Fidel Castro led a revolution in Cuba in and. Particularly intense the Concepción elite would have supported the legalist Schneider Doctrine and refused military involvement in coup... Led the first, non-military, approach involved attempting a constitutional coup notable... Put back on the events to advance upon the Carabineros of the middle class Perspectives... Lagos inaugurated the Morandé 80 entrance to La Moneda presidential palace if he resisted being deposed with than! A `` fatality for the reticence of witnesses to these actions weapon prior to October... Toribio Merino, planner of the male adult population were unemployed in various ways Villa Grimaldi detention and centre... 8 million on the Chilean wheat industry [ 118 ] in the Battle of Petorca the... - it does not recognise continental frontiers declared that the legislature and the airports closed million the!

Soil Triangle Chart, What Was The Result Of The Scramble For Africa, 11 Nations Of North America, Kate Somerville Wrinkle Warrior Mask, Cereal And Grass Forages, Francesco Rinaldi Original Sauce, Instant Coffee Protein Drink, Non Alcoholic Cocktail Recipes, Clean Slate In Spanish,

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

You may use these HTML tags and attributes: <a href="" title=""> <abbr title=""> <acronym title=""> <b> <blockquote cite=""> <cite> <code> <del datetime=""> <em> <i> <q cite=""> <s> <strike> <strong>