Please note that a BioOne web account does not automatically grant access to full-text content. Global-scale assessments in the field of conservation planning are even scarcer. As discussed throughout this report, such ecosystem services are arguably far harder to value economically. Ecosystems provide a stream of valuable ecosystem services to people, such as fish, timber, pollination and recreation opportunities. Both the choice of the land characteristics and the look-up tables are driven by literature on ESS at the European scale and by knowledge of an expert panel (5 experts). However, the results raise the question whether ESS is a suitable concept to support the design of management strategies for sustainable development of mountain regions and whether it can innovate traditional conservation planning. Moreover, demand in certain mountain areas can vary according to seasons, depending heavily on the inrush of tourists, which can lead to up to double the number of residents (eg Grêt-Regamey and Kytzia 2007); these seasonal variations are not recorded in CIESIN datasets. services necessary for the production of all other ecosystem services Examples: soil formation, nutrient and biogeochemical cycling, primary productivity. Ecosystem Services Nature generates endless goods and services that benefit humankind, such air and water purification, coastal storm and flood protection, and space for outdoor recreation. In contrast, many mountain regions in industrialized countries show marginalization tendencies over the past few decades; for example, more than a quarter of all municipalities in the Alps experienced a population decrease over the last 20 years (CIPRA 2007). What do Fires Contribute to Yellowstone National Park’s Ecosystem? Slope and elevation were mapped using the GTOPO30 global digital elevation model (USGS 1996), and urban area was derived from the population data set of the Socioeconomic Data and Application Centre (SEDAC 2010). Figure 2 shows the number of publications addressing mountain ESS. Here are just five types of many of the ecosystem services provided to people and planet by the world’s rainforests: 1. At the same time, mountain ecosystems are sensitive to rapid global development. While the ESS concept has taken flight and the number of studies on the topic published is increasing exponentially, we need to make sure that this powerful concept—allowing us to link nature and human wellbeing—does not become worthless. The landscape is likely to be conserved without action, but we need to make sure that these ecosystems are resilient to changes. (Table extended on next 2 pages.). Mountains occupy 24% of the global land surface and host the world’s principal biomes supplying a diverse array of ecosystem services [3,4]. If there is no demand, ESS are unthreatened, and the concept may not serve as a useful management strategy. Over the past 2 decades the number of papers mentioning “ecosystem services” (ESS) has risen exponentially. They provide essential ecosystem services for livelihoods as well as opportunities for recreation and tourism. As demonstrated by the Panchase example, only healthy and well-functioning ecosystems can provide adaptation services, support livelihoods and enhance natural … They show that the more human-dominated the land use, the higher the demands for ESS. Mountain Ecosystem Goods and Services Mountain Ecosystem Goods and Services Mountains provide a number of ecosystem goods and services for both upstream communities and downstream users. Land use data of the year 2008 were obtained from the MODIS land cover type product from the US Geological Survey (USGS 2009). We have a stronger economy, diverse food products, and advancements in medical research as a result of wildlife and natural ecosystems. Another considerable fraction of the publications uses global valuation coefficients to value EES based on local ecosystem characteristics. Many scholars are beginning to question the clarity of the concept, and others have begun to doubt its utility in practice (eg Ghazoul 2007; Sagoff 2010). As a proxy for the global demand for ESS, we used population density data of the year 2010 from SEDAC (2010) at a resolution of 5 km. by filtering the water from contaminants); irrigation and power generation; or storm protection and pollination. In areas characterized by agricultural abandonment, where traditional farming systems are in decline (eg the Alps or the Pyrenees), the local demand for ESS and their trade-offs are decreasing. Shown are the proportion of contributions that (1) identify ecosystem functions (ESF), (2) include a valuation of ecosystem services (ESS), and (3) consider local demand for ESS. in mountain ecosystems. In their approach the capacity of any given parcel of land to provide specific terrestrial ESS is derived from binary look-up tables. W hen HM Treasury engaged us to benchmark the FinTech landscape in 2016 (UK FinTech: On the Cutting Edge), the FinTech market was nascent and growing; value was already being realized with £6.6b revenue generated within the UK alone. We address this question by globally mapping the distribution of terrestrial ESS and demand for the services. Such strategies have been suggested by various authors (eg Grêt-Regamey et al 2008b; Quetier et al 2010), who recognized that cultural ESS are the most prominent drivers of the ESS concept at study sites in the Alps and Pyrenees. Here the concept of ESS should especially focus on making apparent local trade-offs between the various ESS and aim at maximizing the “output value” of an ecosystem, that is, the value attached to direct ecosystem services and benefits, while preserving its “insurance value,” that is, the capacity to maintain the benefits in future (TEEB 2010b). Only a very small proportion of the studies assess the supply of and demand for ESS. This will count as one of your downloads. While the importance of protecting mountain ecosystems has been widely accepted (eg UN 1992; UNEP 2002), traditional conservation approaches have become a matter of debate, and the concept of ecosystem services (ESS) has risen to prominence (eg Singh 2002; Naidoo et al 2008). What cultural ecosystem services do freshwater ecosystems provide? Mountain ecosystem, complex of living organisms in mountainous areas. Our National Grasslands provide habitat for thousands of species of pollinators. Marine Goods and Services Ocean Ecosystem Goods and Services at Risk: • The ocean and its coastal interface provide: seafood; habitats; fuel wood; energy sources (oil and gas, wind, wave, tidal, thermal); wetland protection While the approach shows that a spatially explicit application of the ESS concept can demonstrate the importance of mountain areas in supporting human wellbeing, the approach used here clearly needs further refinement. Davide Geneletti, Rocco Scolozzi, Blal Adem Esmail, Assessing ecosystem services and biodiversity tradeoffs across agricultural landscapes in a mountain region, International Journal of Biodiversity Science, Ecosystem Services & Management, … Within the complexity of the environment surrounding us, three great classes of ecosystem services have been identified. Agricultural lands also produce fodder, or … Our analyses provide a synthetic hypothesis for the control of the provision of multiple ecosystem services by grasslands (Fig. Supply of and demand for ESS are equally important issues of the concept (eg Burkhard et al 2011). It supports conservation and biodiversity maintenance as prime habitat for many types of species. Many of our food crops and livestock originated in the mountains, including potatoes, tomatoes, llamas and yaks. This is plausible, since mountain areas have the highest heterogeneity of land use characteristics, and ESScap primarily measures ESS richness. Mountains are key centers of biological and cultural diversity as well important sites of traditional ecological knowledge, and influence the climate at many scales. However, the review of literature on ESS studies in mountain areas revealed that many contributions concentrate only on the supply and the quantification of ecosystem functions. For these different types of mountain regions we suggest different approaches to package the concept of ESS into spatial decision-making. The binary links between ecosystem properties and the capacity to deliver services should be further elaborated with stakeholders to get a more accurate quantification of the spatially explicit assessments of the capacity to deliver services. At higher altitudes harsh environmental conditions generally prevail, and a … On the other hand, human wellbeing will depend on the capacity of the systems and human societies to cope with the impacts of local and global change. COMMENTARY The important role of ecological engineers in providing ecosystem services at landscape level I. Petrosillo & G. Zurlini Laboratory of Landscape Ecology, Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences and Accounting for ecosystem services accurately in policy- and decision-making is a difficult task, especially when some have clearer dollar values than others. Mountains provide between 60 and 80 per cent of the world’s freshwater, essential for domestic consumption, irrigation, industry and food and energy production. The large array of ecosystem goods and services (ES) delivered by mountain ecosystems is fundamental for sustaining the well‐being of people living in mountain and lowland areas (MEA 2005; Gret‐Regamey, Brunner & Kienast 2012).Currently, about half of the global human population depends on benefits delivered by mountain ecosystems (Körner & Ohsawa 2005). They provide vital goods and services -particularly freshwater - to a significant proportion of humanity. Himalayas. This pattern may become even more pronounced in the future due to population dynamics: In mountain regions of developing countries, the population has increased a great deal in the last decades, such as by 25% in the Himalaya between 1991 and 2001 (Zutshi 2003). Of the 93 studies conducted in mountain areas, 48 contributions (52%) quantify ecosystem functions, but only 26 (31%) include a quantitative or qualitative valuation of these functions. The maps display the proxy ESScap, measuring to what degree the 15 selected ESS are supported by the underlying land characteristics (see text for calculation details). These include provisioning services (food, water), regulating services (waste water treatment, pollution control), supporting services (shelter), and cultural services (recreation and tourism). Additionally, ecosystem services can provide different types of values, some related to the use of the services by humans and others unrelated to human use; these are known to economists as use values and nonuse values, respectively. Projections of expected impact on the demand for and supply of ESS under shifting socioeconomic, political, and climatic trends will provide a basis to support spatial decision-making at regional scale that optimizes quality of life while securing ESS for a more sustainable form of development. Ecosystem services that benefit people directly include food, recreation, and storm protection. Introduction. On the basis of this analysis, substantial consensus was found that some ecosystems are more likely to provide certain services than others are. At the same time, mountain ecosystems are sensitive to rapid global development (eg Körner 2000; Schröter et al 2005). Our review made use of 3 databases on the world wide web (Web of Science, ScienceDirect, Web of Knowledge) to search for English-language, peer-reviewed journal articles (excluding reviews) using the term “ecosystem services” and either “mountain,” “ mountainous,” “Alps,” “Alpine,” “Andes,” “Carpathians,” “Himalaya,” or “Kilimanjaro” in their title, abstract, or keywords. We restricted our final data set to 4 parameters: land use, elevation, slope, and urban area, and 15 ESS: “wildlife products,” “cultivated products,” “commercial forest products,” “transportation and housing,” “energy,” “climate regulation,” “natural hazard reduction,” “water regulation,” “waste treatment and nutrient cycling,” “erosion prevention,” “biological control,” “habitat function,” “aesthetic information,” “recreation and tourism,” and “cultural and artistic information” (Table 1). Supporting. However, for many services, local or regional demand is crucial for developing appropriate management strategies. Quantifying the Contribution of Organisms to the Provision of Ecosystem... Assessment of Changes in the Value of Ecosystem Services in... Mapping Direct Human Influence on the World's Mountain Areas. Supporting. Linkages for which there is consensus can serve as a checklist for future ecosystem services assessments. Drakou , Joachim Maes, Panayotis Dimopoulos (Corresponding Author) And both the people and the mountains are particularly vulnerable to climate change. The study provides valuable information on the global distribution of the selected ESS but is not directly applicable to other services with little process knowledge (Kienast et al 2009). The perception of the ecosystem services and the use of these services can affect the biophysical characteristic of the ACM and therefore its importance and its long-term ability to provide services. Mountain ecosystems provide a vast array of goods and services to humanity, both to people living in the mountains and to people living outside mountains (eg MA 2005; TEEB 2010a): For example, more than half of humankind depends on freshwater that is captured, stored, and purified in mountain regions; from an ecological point of view, mountain regions are hotspots of biodiversity; and from a societal point of view, mountains are of global significance as key destinations for tourist and recreation activities. (E) and (F) High supply of and low demand for ESS in the mountains of North America. Ecosystem services go beyond the direct economic benefits derived from exploitation of very specific ecosystem functions such as timber from forests. The concept was first termed “ecosystem services” by Ehrlich and Ehrlich in 1981 and gained momentum in scientific literature due to several seminal publications in the 1990s (eg de Groot 1992; Constanza et al 1997; Daily 1997). The ecosystem services that birds provide are largely indirect and support or enhance other services. However, some of the areas are characterized by hotspots of high touristic activities. Presentation of the ES concept. One can distinguish mountain regions with a high capacity to supply ESS and a high local demand from mountain regions with high local supply and low local demand. Nieves Lopez Izquierdo, Tags: Open access article: please credit the authors and the full source. Case studies from such regions (eg Saxena et al 2001; Chettri et al 2007; Turpie et al 2008) demonstrate that local participation and the incorporation of concerns, knowledge, and perceptions of indigenous people is crucial for the success of ESS-based management. . In a recently published article, Burkhard et al (2011) extend their approach and derive a supply and demand matrix for specific land uses. Appendix 1 provides the list of the remaining studies organized according to the definition of the pathway from ecosystem structure and processes to human wellbeing given in TEEB (2010a) and reproduced in Figure 1. Ecosystems In light of the urgent need for protecting fragile mountain ecosystems, we highlight areas where ecosystems and their services are under pressure. Freshwater systems provide a range of vital regulating and maintaining ecosystem services through processes that move water, energy, nutrients, organisms and sediment across different landscapes and habitats, linking atmospheric, terrestrial, groundwater and marine systems. The spatially explicit assessment shows that we can distinguish between mountain areas where demand and supply are well balanced from mountain areas where demand and supply are unbalanced. Therefore, it is hardly surprising that our ancestors highly valued trees. Figure 3B shows the same map of ESS capacity (ESScap), but overlaid with the world's population of the year 2010. Mountain regions provide diverse goods and services to human society. To think that trees provide these services for absolutely zero cost. Number of papers addressing mountain ecosystem services identified in a comprehensive literature review. In many situations You have requested a machine translation of selected content from our databases. Ecosystem services supply in protected mountains of Greece: setting the baseline for conservation management Ioannis Kokkoris (Corresponding Author), E.G. About the Katoomba Group www.katoombagroup.org From its 1999 inception in the mountains surrounding Katoomba, Australia, the Katoomba Group has served as an international network of individuals working to promote and improve capacity related to markets and payments for ecosystem services (PES). •Mountains are important as centres of crop diversity. Contrary to traditional conservation approaches focusing on the intrinsic value of nature, the utilitarian concept of ESS explicitly involves beneficiaries, that is, society's demand for services. Ecosystem Services, associated with the Ecosystem Services Partnership (ESP), is an international, interdisciplinary journal that deals with the science, policy and practice of Ecosystem Services defined as the direct and indirect contributions of ecosystems to human wellbeing. For example, pollination is a service for which there is no technological substitute. Use values are related to observable behaviours through which people directly or indirectly use or enjoy ecosystem services. In response, scientists at The cascade model originally published by Haines-Young and Potschin ( 2010 ) is used as a … In order to contribute toward a clear delineation of the ESS concept, we review the literature on mountain ESS and investigate whether the concept was understood correctly by the scientific community. Each country and region of the Hindu Kush Himalayas (HKH) faces pressing environmental and developmental challenges ... HICAP is producing knowledge on how climate change affects natural resources, ecosystem services, and the communities that depend on them. Our results, however, help to (1) illustrate that the spatial distribution of supply of and demand for ESS matters, (2) set up a preliminary framework for further refined analysis, and (3) distinguish different applications of how the ESS concept can influence spatial decision-making in mountain regions. Further, protecting watersheds to provide clean water also enhances provision of other ecosystem services (e.g., open space for recreation, habitat for aquatic and terrestrial species, aesthetics). If ESScap is low (minimum obtained 13), support for the selected 15 services is very limited. Demand for ESS should not exceed the supply of the services. They include aesthetic inspiration, cultural identity, sense of home, and spiritual experience related to the natural environment. Neither BioOne nor the owners and publishers of the content make, and they explicitly disclaim, any express or implied representations or warranties of any kind, including, without limitation, representations and warranties as to the functionality of the translation feature or the accuracy or completeness of the translations. The increased availability of geo-referenced data boosts the potential to spatially assess ESS by connecting services to mapped physical properties of landscapes (Kienast et al 2009). 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